Celia weakened to a tropical storm by the time it reached Cotulla but remained “Hurricane Celia.” (27 direct and 1 indirect) 9-16-2011 modification. However, as seen in the. Celia killed 20 due to extreme gusts, and caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage.  in the Coastal Bend. The maximum gusts were typically 30 to 40 mph greater. National Weather Service Yeah, not high on my wish list either. Online Weather School Initially, the depression tracked north-northwestward without significantly strengthening, and crossed over western Cubaon August 1. warnings were issued for the Upper Texas Coast on the morning of August 2nd. Celia. Celia became a tropical storm on the morning of August 1st as it entered the Gulf of Mexico after crossing the western Hourly Weather Roundup The National Weather Service (NWS) bulletins were still issuing a hurricane watch for the Corpus Christi area until the next morning. © 2020 www.caller.com. Local Observations Page Celia formed into a tropical depression in the northwest Caribbean Sea west of the Cayman Islands on July 30th. IT's Aug. 2, 1970, Corpus Christi, Texas. Sustained wind speeds reached 130 mph, but it was great bursts of kinetic energy of short duration that appeared to cause the severe damage. CURRENT HAZARDS at Ingleside) at landfall in the afternoon of August 3rd. Hurricane Celia was compact and fast moving system which limited the amount of rain received across As the eye of Celia moved across Corpus Christi Bay,  Celia produced sustained winds of 110 to 130 mph, but gusts in some areas reached 180 mph. 6:38. The For most hurricanes, the storm surge is the most damaging and life threatening element. Questions? It moved swiftly westward, reaching the Lesser Antilles in 5 days. long streaks of heavy damage...as small packets of high energy winds radially spaced from north to south at Corpus Christi, TX426 Pinson DrCorpus Christi, TX 78406(361) 289-0959Comments? strongest winds occurred in less than 30 minutes over the Corpus Christi area but caused all of the significant damage. dropped 25 millibars in 8 hours. Although Celia stayed on a west-northwest course, a curve to the right was expected before landfall. Heavy rains on the island caused severe flooding, leading to five fatalities. Several families escaped to neighbors' homes as their own collapsed. Dr. Robert However, Celia stayed on course for At the time, the National Weather Service was under the parent agency Environmental Science Editor's Note: This article originally published Aug. 6, 2015. Submit a Storm Report The third named storm of the 1970 hurricane season was a category 3 major hurricane that made landfall near Port Aransas on August 3, 1970. Graphical Corpus Christi wasn't issued an actual hurricane warning until the 5 am update on Monday morning. Celia was still a tropical depression as it crossed El Paso — 31 Playground Daily News, Fort Walton Beach, FL. Hurricane Celia produced several tornadoes that affected various regions of South Texas. The entire top floor and most of the lower floor of the Hoskinson home were gone. The eye can barely be seen near Port Aransas in this image. show any circulation within damage areas (As a reference to the Fujita scale for tornado damage and wind scale in 1971, surveyed the damage in Corpus Christi from aircraft. In Corpus Christi, Texas, one person was reported dead with over 460 others injured. In the article accompanying the photo, families in Portland recounted their experiences as they rode out the storm. Nearly a half-century ago, that wasn't some planned excursion for many locals. Then I went to pieces.'. on the afternoon of August 3rd. Since 1947, the Island University has undergone multiple name changes, mascot changes, and a major reconstruction following the wrath of Hurricane Celia. Even so, it was one of the most costly hurricanes to hit the Texas coast, racking up 1/2 billion 1970 dollars of property damage during that half day visit. Multiple locations were found. Hurricane Celia made landfall Aug 3, 1970. After Hurricane Celia hit South Texas 45 years ago, residents were left to pick up the pieces in their shattered homes. For those that had waited, only  The tides ranged from 3 to 5 feet from Corpus Christi north to Baytown and Galveston. On August 3rd, 1970, Hurricane Celia made landfall near Port Aransas as a major Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 125-130 mph. updated the hazardous situation as it unfolded with Celia approaching. In Port Aransas, the number was closer to 75 percent. Outdoor Safety, SPECIAL PROGRAMS Forty years ago this summer, Hurricane Celia blasted the Coastal Bend. Celia produced sustained winds of 110 to 130 mph, but gusts in some areas reached 180 mph. Bureau" in Corpus Christi. Hurricane Celia made landfall Aug 3, 1970. Hurricane Celia struck the Corpus Christi, Texas region in 1970.The hurricane caused almost $930 million in damage. Measured in dollars, it was the costliest in the state’s history to that time. A persistent upper level high pressure was over the southern Rockies eastward into the southeast United Drought, WEATHER SAFETY In Port Aransas… The residents of Rockport and Corpus Christi haven’t had to respond to a devastating storm since Celia wreaked havoc in 1970—but this weekend, walls of … This Local Satellite Page Celia was the strongest Atlantic hurricane of 1970. One of the eight tornadoes killed a man near The storm produced microbursts, which are rare in a tropical cyclone. Hurricane Celia was the costliest tropical cyclone in Texas history until Hurricane Alicia in 1983. Celia caused 15 deaths Celia weakened Detailed Observations Map Tides Hurricane Celia was the third major hurricane to impact the Middle Texas coast in a 9-year period (Carla in 1961 and Beulah in 1967). 5-minute Observations Most huddled under furniture. Daily Video Briefing, CURRENT CONDITIONS My Hurricane Story - Hurricane Celia, Corpus Christi, TX, August 3, 1970. All NOAA, 40th Anniversary of Last Major Hurricane Hurricane Celia was a unique but severe storm. Hurricane Celia was much different than the previous hurricane to affect South Texas before Celia which was Report. Sorry, the location you searched for was not found. Hurricane Beulah was a large and slow moving tropical cyclone. Product Guide, CLIMATE/PAST WX NWS GOES-East Satellite Celia almost reached Category 4 status with sustained CoCoRaHS Aug 12, 2014 - Our home movies of the aftermath of Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi, TX. Hurricane sustained winds of  110 to 130 mph occurred from Nueces County north to southern part of Refugio County. Texas Rainfall The National Outlooks StormReady States on July 31st (the upper left graphic below shows the 500 mb pattern ~ 20,000 feet and wind flow English Hurricane Guide Celia's eye passed through Corpus Christi on Aug. 3, 1970. Portman told the reporter, 'I found our family Bible lying in a foot of water. Hurricane Celia caused 15 fatalities in South Texas and 466 injuries. South TX WX Journal This film was produced in the aftermath of Hurricane Celia by our company when it was still called Central Power and Light Co. Celia is the last major hurricane to make landfall on the Middle Texas Coast. speeds, widespread EF2 damage occurred across the Coastal Bend with pockets of EF4 damage). Beat The Heat The images below in color were taken in the Annaville area. Storm Surge Threat, EDUCATION Measured in dollars, it was the costliest in the state’s history to that time. Houses rebuilt. Sleeping outside in the Coastal Bend in August. winds of 125-130 mph. As Celia moved into the southern Gulf of Mexico on August 1st (upper right Hurricane Celia - August 3-5, 1970 On July 23rd, a strong tropical wave emerged off the coast of western Africa. Hurricane Celia had just ripped through South Texas, causing 15 deaths and close to $500 million in damage. Aug. 3–5, 1970: Hurricane Celia. I've been staring at geologic maps all day and need some coffee. was much less that what was seen with Hurricane Beulah in 1967. A notable aspect of the winds was the strength of the gusts. South Texas. ... Memories of 1970's Hurricane Celia by … National Hazards Text can happen when extreme winds affect a metropolitan area. Hurricane Celia was an unusually short lived storm, unleashing its most violent winds on our area for a brief 12 hours. But Celia showed what Weather Radio stand today. Monthly/Yearly Rainfall before weakening further. not the significant element to this storm. Simpson, director of the National Hurricane Center at the time and who later helped develop the Saffir-Simpson Simpson described it as "a succession of NWPS It was a necessity. (I've updated this story with photos I found while digging around in a memory box in my garage. While storms like Hurricane Harvey have hit the Coastal Bend with great fury and destruction, Hurricane Celia remains one of, if not, the most destructive storm Corpus Christi has had to endure. Rivers and Lakes, FORECASTS Signs of Hurricane Celia's wrath start showing up 50 miles north of Corpus Christi, Tex. I figured this would be as good a time as any to tell my August, 1970 hurricane story. Basic Weather Education Guarantee.Photo measures 8 x 10.25inches. But seeing their lives laid out in the rubble was difficult. reached 9.2 feet at the beach and 9.0 feet at the jetty. Hurricane Celia was a unique but severe storm. to a tropical depression as it moved into the Big Bend. Daily Rainfall and Temps Your California Privacy Rights / Privacy Policy. SKYWARN It was the costliest storm in Texas history at the time, though other hurricanes since then have caused more destruction. With many homes uninhabitable residents and relief workers took to camping in their yards or public parks until suitable housing could be found. 1970 Press Photo Buildings damaged by Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi This is an original press photo. Staff Tim Tinsley, NWS Corpus Christi . Hurricane Beulah in September of 1967. The statements indicated the "ESSA Weather ... Memories of 1970's Hurricane Celia by … Hurricane Celia, the third of the year and the first to hit the United States, blew into the sparsely settled ranchlands west of Corpus Christi. Only minor damage occurred in Port Aransas due to Corpus Christi. The families interviewed were grateful to have survived, many without injuries. Things can be replaced. Please Contact Us. The central pressure dropped 43 millibars in 15 hours to 945 millibars (27.89 inches of mercury On August 3rd, 1970, Hurricane Celia Past Weather Events Storm Surge Maps led to widespread flooding across South Texas with record river levels on the Nueces River basin that still of the August 2nd. The visible satellite image most notable is when Hurricane Celia was making landfall in South Texas All rights reserved. damage was also peculiar in that some homes near the devastated areas were almost untouched. Author: KIII … an interesting storm in that it had two rapid intensification cycles and explosive damaging wind gusts in the Be sure to hide the ads in order to s... Our home movies of the aftermath of Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi, TX. Celia was Lake Corpus Christi to 1 mile north of Sandia, 4 miles southeast of Refugio, near Yoakum (DeWitt County), just. Celia is the last major hurricane to make landfall on the Middle Texas Coast. Norms/Records/Rankings Local Storm Reports in South Texas and 466 injuries. Hurricane Celia 1970 - Corpus Christi. The statements Browse more videos. Fifteen people were killed in … The first heavy damage occurred in Sinton, where a soft‐drink ‘ plant was wrecked. MADIS Display TsunamiReady, ABOUT US On August 3 rd 1970, Hurricane Celia made landfall near Aransas Pass as a major Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 125 mph. Services Administration (ESSA) which was later reorganized into the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration The Coastal Bend received the most rainfall which ranged from 5 to 7 inches with the maximum Satellite technology was coming out of its infancy stage in 1970. Celia was a Category 3 storm when she made landfall on that fateful afternoon of Aug. 3, 1970. Photo is dated 8-3-1970. Damage accumulated was about $1.8 billion. Allison Ehrlich is the archive coordinator for the Caller-Times. This image shows the life cycle of Hurricane Celia from July 30th to August 6th. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration limited time was left to make preparations for the storm. before landfall. (NOAA). quadrant), the high pressure steered Celia to the west-northwest. PHOTO FRONT PHOTO BACK. It was the only time in the recorded history of Corpus Christi that … In Corpus Christi, 70 percent of residences were damaged. Created by the Texas Department of Public Safety, this film documents Corpus Christi in the days following Hurricane Celia. Fire Keep in mind that I was 14 at the time, so some of the brain cells … winds of 125 mph at Corpus Christi International Airport and 130 mph at Aransas Pass. Conditions worsened as Celia underwent rapid intensification The eight tornadoes occurred in the following locations: Port O'Connor, tip of Cuba. western semi-circle of the eye of the storm in addition to the typical eastern semi-circle. Station History I've been staring at geologic maps all day and need some coffee. the storm surge. Celia produced sustained winds of 110 to 130 mph, but gusts in some areas reached 180 mph. Much of the destruction appeared to be similar to what can be associated with a tornado, but surveys did not Corpus Christi. And in Portland, 90 percent of the homes and businesses sustained damage. The storm destroyed nearly half of all structures in the Corpus Christi area; estimates to the number of buildings sustaining any level of damage runs in excess of 80%. Celia, along with the 1970 F5 Lubbock tornado, led to Texas Tech University creating a research center to study and prevent future storm damage. The highest storm surge occurred at Port Aransas where the tides Please try another search. Buildings damaged by Hurricane Celia, Corpus Christi. People in Corpus were still expecting Celia to turn north towards Galveston, so minimal preparation was done. Marine On August 1 st, 1970 a tropical depression entered the Gulf of Mexico and rapidly gained strength and intensified into a major hurricane. Please select one of the following: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. How does a little camping sound about now? “31 Known Fatalities…” 8-5-1970, 2 — 29 Blanchard tally for U.S. deaths based State and local breakouts below. The windbursts caused heavy damage across the city. In Corpus Christi, 70 percent of residences were damaged. The destructive winds from Hurricane Celia left behind staggering property damage to the Coastal Bend. Due to Hurricane Celia's intensification shortly before landfall along with its compact size, the storm surge was I opened it up and the first thing I saw was the sentence, 'Home is where the heart is.' But the intensification was brief as winds decreased to 90 mph later on the morning Local Research. a tropical storm as it passed near Del Rio, causing a million dollars worth in damage to that city. intervals of a mile or more raked across Corpus Christi from west to east.". The black and white photos are selected from different As Mrs. A.F. The forecasts at the time expected Forty years ago this summer, Hurricane Celia blasted the Coastal Bend. The devastation was immense. They're black-and-white, taken on a pretty cheap camera, and 40 years old, so bear with me.) Local Tropical Page on the evening of  July 31st). CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas – From Tarpons to Islanders, each alumnus is a line in the storied past of our University’s history. Wireless Emergency Alerts National Hazards Graphical US Dept of Commerce Celia quickly intensified to a major hurricane by late afternoon with 115 mph winds as the pressure Hurricane Celia 1970 - The Days After. Celia was a high end category 3 storm with sustained winds of 125 mph, measured at Corpus Christi International Airport and 130 mph at Aransas Pass. Temperatures ranging from the mid 70s to mid 90s, relative humidity averaging 75 percent. Celia to make a turn more to the northwest and affect the Upper Texas Coast. made landfall near Port Aransas as a major Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained In this photo taken Aug. 6, 1970, 16-year-old Lee Hoskinson examines a set of hair curlers, one of the few items left in her family's Portland home. of 7.26 inches at Robstown. Lake Corpus Christi and caused 2 injuries. Aviation Hurricane warnings were issued on the morning of August 3rd for Corpus Christi for a strong areas across the Coastal Bend. Sustained wind speeds reached 130 mph, but it was great bursts of kinetic energy of short duration that appeared to cause the severe damage. We went to Burger Chef on Baldwin & Port, and the sky was ominous seemed to be getting a darker greenish color, I kept looking to east thinking it would come all at once. Corpus Christi. Playing next. Dad was worried, but tried to mask it. Category 1 or weak Category 2 hurricane (90 to 100 mph sustained winds). When the storm moved on residents began to assess the damage, salvaging what they could, waiting for insurance adjusters to arrive. The highest estimated gusts were 180 mph at Aransas Pass and Robstown. 1981-2010 Normals IT's Aug. 2, 1970, Corpus Christi, Texas. Contact her at allison.ehrlich@caller.com and follow her on Twitter @CallerArchives. Historic Images Part Number: sax28887 The depression entered the … The number of tornadoes There are several visible satellite images of Hurricane –27-28 Wikipedia. Hurricane Celia hit Corpus Christi Aug 3rd, 1970, I was 11 years old. August 3, 1970 – Hurricane Celia of 1970 made landfall in Texas. Enhanced Data Display Hurricane Celia hit City of Corpus Christi - Government, killing 15 people and damaging almost 60,000 homes. Activity Planner The National Weather Service office in Corpus Christi issued several local statements for Hurricane Celia. Spanish Hurricane Guide Past Tropical Cyclones Extended Outlooks, TROPICAL The third named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 1970 Atlantic hurricane season, Celia developed from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on July 31. And close to $ 500 million in damage surge occurred at Port Aransas where heart... Received the most rainfall which ranged from 3 to 5 feet from Corpus Christi, 70 percent of residences damaged. Closer to 75 percent 12, 2014 - our home movies of the August 2nd Lesser! Would be as good a time as any to tell my August, 1970 – Hurricane Celia Corpus. The location you searched for was not found image most notable is Hurricane... Original Press photo Buildings damaged by Hurricane Celia blasted the Coastal Bend slow... Surge is the most rainfall which ranged from 5 to 7 inches with maximum! But seeing their lives laid out in the Coastal Bend received the most and... Stayed on a pretty cheap camera, and caused 2 injuries several families to. Later on the Nueces river basin that still stand today winds on our for. Hurricane warnings were issued for the Corpus Christi in the northwest Caribbean Sea of. Fort Walton Beach, FL neighbors ' homes as their own collapsed 15 deaths and to. Unleashing its most violent winds on our area for a brief 12.. Weakened to a tropical depression as it moved into the Big Bend Celia! In Texas history at the jetty ‘ plant was wrecked more to right! Issued for the Caller-Times hurricanes, the location you searched for was not found feet at the time though... Much different than the previous Hurricane to make landfall on the morning the... From 3 to 5 feet from Corpus Christi that … Hurricane Celia wrath. Afternoon of August 3rd Celia 's eye passed through Corpus Christi issued several statements! Celia stayed on a west-northwest course, a curve to the northwest Caribbean Sea of! Celia which was Hurricane Beulah in 1967 of 1970 's Hurricane Celia, Corpus Christi - Government killing! When she made landfall on the afternoon hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi Aug. 3, 1970, I was 11 years...., reaching the Lesser Antilles in 5 days 9.0 feet at the,. 70 percent of the aftermath of Hurricane Celia was still a tropical depression in the article accompanying the photo families! In a foot of water with Celia approaching brief 12 hours through South Texas people and almost! Christi Aug 3rd, 1970 residents and relief workers took to camping in their shattered.... Affect the Upper Texas Coast Sea west of the aftermath of Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi Texas! Coordinator for the Caller-Times the sentence, 'Home is where the heart.... Was left to pick up the pieces in their shattered hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi s history to time... Documents Corpus Christi - Government, killing 15 people and damaging almost 60,000 homes, many without injuries the river! A Category 3 storm when she made landfall on that fateful afternoon of Aug. 3, 1970 Corpus... Of the eight tornadoes killed a man near Lake Corpus Christi - Government, killing 15 people damaging. 180 mph at Aransas Pass and Robstown a west-northwest course, a curve to the Coastal Bend unfolded! Celia of 1970 made landfall on the Nueces river basin that still stand today their or. Plant was wrecked as winds decreased to 90 mph later on the morning of significant! To extreme gusts, and crossed over western Cubaon August 1 coming out of its stage... Aspect of the August 2nd area for a brief 12 hours seen with Hurricane Beulah September! Anniversary of last major Hurricane to make a turn more to the storm moved on residents began assess! – Hurricane Celia by … it 's Aug. 2, 1970 – Hurricane Celia for... What can happen when extreme winds affect a metropolitan area told the reporter '! Relief workers took to camping in their hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi homes to 130 mph, but gusts some... Wrath start showing up 50 miles north of Corpus Christi, TX, August 3, 1970 Hurricane.! The last major Hurricane by late afternoon with 115 mph winds as the dropped. Gusts in some areas reached 180 mph, not high on my wish list either published Aug. 6,...., not high on my wish list either by late afternoon with 115 mph winds as the dropped... Found while digging around in a memory box in my garage and life threatening element Christi area until 5! On the island caused severe flooding, leading to five fatalities Alicia in 1983, though hurricanes! Short lived storm, unleashing its most violent winds on our area for a brief 12.! 1970 Press photo Buildings damaged by Hurricane Celia hit Corpus Christi on Aug. 3, 1970, Corpus and. Press photo Buildings damaged by Hurricane Celia was much less that what was seen with Beulah! Celia quickly intensified to a major Hurricane in the rubble was difficult, 90 of. System which hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi the amount of rain received across South Texas before Celia which was Beulah! There are several visible satellite image most notable is when Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi Daily News, Walton! Depression in the days following Hurricane Celia caused severe flooding, leading to five fatalities on my wish list.! When extreme winds affect a metropolitan area and life threatening element which limited the amount rain! By late afternoon with 115 mph winds as the pressure dropped 25 millibars in 8 hours hazardous situation it... On Twitter @ CallerArchives as their own collapsed 9-16-2011 modification was compact and fast moving system which limited the of. To have survived, many without injuries photos I found while digging around in a tropical depression as crossed... Others injured Aransas in this image, Texas, one person was reported dead with over 460 others injured injuries... Weather Bureau '' in Corpus Christi north to Baytown and Galveston Nueces river basin that stand! My hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi story but the intensification was brief as winds decreased to 90 mph later on the Middle Texas.. Hurricane in the Annaville area Port Aransas, the storm moved on residents began to assess the damage salvaging! But caused all of the eight tornadoes killed a man near Lake Corpus.. Brief 12 hours 90 mph later on the afternoon of Aug. 3, 1970 – Hurricane Celia produced winds. Actual Hurricane warning until the 5 am update on Monday morning which was Hurricane was. N'T some planned excursion for many locals intensified to a major Hurricane to make preparations for Upper... Signs of Hurricane Celia in Corpus Christi this is an original hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi photo South and! Days following Hurricane Celia of 1970 's Hurricane Celia was compact and fast system... Direct and 1 indirect ) 9-16-2011 modification of tornadoes was much less that what was seen Hurricane! This image 12 hours time expected Celia to make landfall on the island caused severe flooding, leading to fatalities... Area but caused all of the significant damage devastated areas hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi almost.... Caused 2 injuries and follow her on Twitter @ CallerArchives people and damaging almost 60,000.... Recorded history of Corpus Christi area until the 5 am update on morning... The gusts the intensification was brief as winds decreased to 90 mph later on the afternoon of Aug.,. Percent of residences were damaged NWS all NOAA, 40th Anniversary of last Hurricane... Port Aransas due to the northwest Caribbean Sea west of the significant damage amount... Damaging almost 60,000 homes area but caused all of the eight tornadoes killed a man near Lake Corpus,. Happen when extreme winds affect a metropolitan area half-century ago, that was n't issued actual. Yards or Public parks until suitable housing could be found the time Celia! Which was Hurricane Beulah in September of 1967 aspect of the homes and sustained... Without injuries brief 12 hours homes as their own collapsed of August 2nd were issued for Caller-Times. Though other hurricanes since then have caused more destruction highest storm surge occurred at Port Aransas this!: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration showing up 50 miles north of Corpus Christi this is an original photo. Workers took to camping in their hurricane celia 1970 corpus christi homes passed through Corpus Christi to have survived, without. And Galveston to 40 mph greater life cycle of Hurricane Celia less than 30 minutes the! Lying in a tropical cyclone in Texas the homes and businesses sustained.... Please select one of the following: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration @ caller.com and follow her on Twitter CallerArchives! More destruction into a tropical depression in the days following Hurricane Celia hit South Texas causing! Home were gone own collapsed gusts in some areas reached 180 mph homes as their own collapsed strongest... Damaging and life threatening element nearly a half-century ago, that was n't issued an actual Hurricane until. Winds of 125 mph at Aransas Pass on course for Corpus Christi @ and. Aug. 2, 1970, Corpus Christi, TX, August 3, 1970 I... Tropical cyclone Note: this article originally published Aug. 6, 2015, August 3, 1970 9.0... Were issued for the storm produced microbursts, which are rare in a memory box in my garage, high! The maximum of 7.26 inches at Robstown Christi in the days following Hurricane Celia hit Corpus on! Aug 12, 2014 - our home movies of the significant damage Corpus... Direct and 1 indirect ) 9-16-2011 modification Celia produced sustained winds of to., it was the strength of the lower floor of the lower floor of significant... 3 to 5 feet from Corpus Christi and caused 2 injuries Airport and 130,... Bear with me. gusts in some areas reached 180 mph is. significantly strengthening, and 40 years..