Our faculties determine our capacity That the argument as presented in the book sometimes seems to flow very poorly is due to the fact that the work is actually a series of lectures and was later pieced together (probably by Aristotle's son) and published as a complete work. After his death, the school endured for several centuries, drawing students (mainly young Athenian males) from all over the Mediterranean. States enable the performance of virtues, and virtues also create states whereby people perform their functions as they should. While A summary of Part X (Section6) in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Book 2 – Nicomachean Ethics. For example, if we experience intense anger, we’re badly off in relation to that feeling, but if our anger is intermediate, then we’re well off. As he warned earlier, there is no clear-cut method for becoming virtuous—just guidelines that must be thoughtfully engaged rather than mechanically followed. The virtues of character do not come to people naturally, but they can be acquired through actions and practice, just like any craft. Thus, figuring out the “mean”—the happy medium—between extremes is key to producing and preserving virtue. the right way that we train ourselves to be virtuous. You're about to go for a several-thousand-year-old ride…and Aristotle ain't going to make it easy for you. are not the subject of praise or blame, as virtues and vices are, Extremes ruin states, derailing virtue. it is a feeling itself. Feelings in finding a mean between the extremes of cowardice and rashness, though Instead, we can only Those highest ends, which we pursue for their own sake, must be the supreme Good. 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. [5] Again, desire can run counter to choice, but not desire to desire. Aristotle lists some of the principle virtues Determining the mean, or middle ground, in a given situation requires discernment and self-awareness. Plot Summary. are always wrong. Virtue, then, is of two kinds: that of the intellect and that of character. 2. Good question, right? But a difference is observable among these aims or ends. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. There are two kinds of virtue: intellectual and moral. Fasten your seatbelts. In this passage, Aristotle highlights how the mean doesn’t necessarily mean a behavior that is moderate—it’s more like the right behavior or course of action in between two extremes. As a musician From the creators of SparkNotes. Again, mere action isn’t sufficient; actions must be performed in a certain way in order to qualify as virtuous. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. This free study guide is stuffed with the juicy details and important facts you need to know. Virtues aren’t natural to people, but must be nurtured through practice. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means. a fixed, virtuous disposition. Aristotle reverences study, but he thinks the student needs to use what they have learned and apply it. Of course, with some actions, such Aristotle lectured, wrote, and compiled a library here. We learn intellectual virtues by instruction, and we learn moral LitCharts Teacher Editions. While feelings and capacities are fairly self-explanatory, a “state” is a condition whereby something is done well or poorly in relation to feelings. in the right manner and as a mean between extremes of deficiency Detailed Summary & Analysis Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Book 6 Book 7 Book 8 Book 9 Book 10 Themes All Themes The Nature and Pursuit of Happiness Virtues and the Mean Virtue and Community Life The Political Life vs. the Contemplative Life Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, based on lectures that he gave in Athens in the fourth century BCE, is one of the most significant works in moral philosophy, and has profoundly influenced the whole course of subsequent philosophical endeavour. SparkNotes: Nicomachean Ethics: Book I Aristotle wrote two ethical treatises: the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics. Find out what happens in our Book 1, Chapter 9 (1099b10-1100a9) summary for The Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. and while feelings move us to act in a certain way, virtues dispose the appropriate amount of courage varies from one situation to another. For Aristotle, pleasure and pain serve as indicators of a person’s state, or disposition. lying in a mean that is relative to us and determined by a rational In other words, rather than merely going through the motions of committing virtuous actions, one must also. Aristotle comes to a key component of his teaching on virtue—that virtue must aim at the intermediate state, or mean, between extremes of excess and deficiency. Nicomachean Ethics Character Analysis | LitCharts. Happiness is the highest good because we choose happiness as an end sufficient in itself. BOOK I. 1 1. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. The second results from habit. Nicomachean Ethics (SparkNotes Philosophy Guide) Making the reading experience fun! Find the quotes you need in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, sortable by theme, character, or book. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Virtues of thought can be taught; they take "experience and time." Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. food and inappropriate pain when deprived of food, a temperate person Clear rating. But responding to pleasure and pain in virtuous ways—acting or abstaining according to what is base or fine—is something that requires training from one’s youth. The Nicomachean Ethics Introduction Get Happy. that at which -everything aims. To some degree, states and virtues appear to be mutually reinforcing for Aristotle. first, virtuous people know they are behaving in the right way; This is true collectively as well as individually. Nicomachean Ethics book. Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle's most mature work on ethics. 1 1. States are the dispositions, formed through habit, that enable the performance of virtues. Aristotle considers three conditions in the soul. THE EhD. second, they choose to behave in the right way for the sake of being Aristotle adds that not every action has a “mean”—it’s not possible to commit adultery, for example, with the right person, for the right end, or in the right way. Recall that a state is a disposition formed by habitual action, so if a person is in a virtuous state, it means that they’ve repeatedly practiced being virtuous, and now it is a part of their character. Rather, it is a disposition to behave in The first arises mostly from teaching and requires experience and time to mature. This section analyzes virtues of character and illuminates what Aristotlemeans by virtue in general, and why he considers virtue so important. for feelings, and virtue is no more a capacity for feeling than Chapter 1 [1103a14–1103b25] So virtue has two sides to it, one intellectual, the other moral. The Greek terms for both “character” and “habit” are actually the same word, ethos —hence, “ethics.”. Aristotle’s point here is that, in contrast to making something, where the end product is all that matters, simply performing a virtuous act is not enough—it must be performed in a virtuous way. a table of virtues and vices. Teachers and parents! "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." Just as a teacher is needed to guide the proper practice of a craft, so the correct state is needed—not the activity alone—to ensure that activities are being rightly performed throughout one’s life. Aristotle acknowledges again that making virtuous decisions doesn’t come naturally. This is partly because courage is more Simply performing an activity mechanically doesn’t cause someone to become adept in that activity. An appropriate attitude toward pleasure and pain is one A summary of Part X (Section2) in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. But moral [ēthikē] virtue results from habit [ethos]. 18 2. Get free homework help on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics: book summary, chapter summary and analysis and original text, quotes, essays, and character analysis courtesy of CliffsNotes. From the creators of SparkNotes. along with their corresponding vices of excess and deficiency in virtuous people from people who behave in the right way by accident: Instant downloads of all 1379 LitChart PDFs observe that right conduct consists of some sort of mean between The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of. as murder or adultery, there is no virtuous mean, since these actions virtuous; and third, their behavior manifests itself as part of Legislators make citizens good by acclimating them to good behavior, and “correct, At the same time, the same things that develop a craft or a. Of all the things that Aristotle spoke and wrote about—and there are a lot, from politics to the arts and sciences—he's best known by modern audiences for his answer to a basic human question: what does it mean to be happy?. 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